(Sơ lược một số tiêu chuẩn BIM phổ biến – trước ISO19650…)

Development of an agreed set of industry standards is the cornerstone of through-life interoperability from the initial planning to the operation phase (Sabol, 2018; Kiviniemi and Codinhoto, 2014; Hallberg and Tarandi, 2011). The most widely-used standards in this area have been developed and maintained by the non-profit international organization buildingSMART. A number of such standards developed by buildingSMART i.e. IFC, IDM, bSDD, BCF as well as some other international and Swedish standards have been briefly introduced in this chapter as contextual information for the included papers.

5.1.1 Industry Foundation Classes (#IFC)

The first version of the IFC standard (ISO 16739) was released in 1998 by buildingSMART (then the International Alliance for Interoperability, IAI) (buildingSMART, 2016). The constituent components of IFC namely data types, entities, attributes, supertypes, subtypes, and algorithmic constraints have been derived from the EXPRESS data modelling language (ISO, 2004). IFC standard is based on the STEP standard and its exchange formats STEP physical file format (ISO, 2008). The more recent versions of IFC included further content and syntax features such as the IFCXML specification. The latest version of IFC, IFC4, also embraces infrastructural entities and other components of the built environment. IFC serves as the vendor-neutral data model for exchange of building information among software and firms. It is now widely implemented as an essential component of building information hand-over specifications around the globe and is incorporated in many national and firm-specific BIM guidelines.

5.1.2 Information Delivery Manual (#IDM)

IDM is an international standard (ISO 29481-1:2010 – Part 1) that defines a methodology for documenting processes for exchange of facility and construction information. IDMs also specify the types of information that each actor should provide so that software-based information exchange scenarios could be executed successfully and the loss of data upon the transferring and interpretation processes is minimized. IDMs need to be developed together with the required provisions for software development and are crucial to interoperability (buildingSMART, 2014a).

5.1.3 Model View Definition (#MVD)

MVD specifications define application- or actor-specific subsets of the IFC schema (buildingSMART, 2014a). Examples of the different use-cases that require allocated IDMs are different types of analyses namely environmental, energy, evacuation, safety, fire, acoustic, accessibility, constructability and indoors climate analyses as well as quantity take-off, cost calculation and scheduling. The Coordination View was the first MVD developed by buildingSMART for common exchange purposes.

5.1.4 BuildingSMART Data Dictionary (#bSDD)

bSDD, initially called the International Framework for Dictionaries (IFD) is intended for interlinking the broad variety of ontologies and vocabularies used for describing components of the built environment and their properties across different countries, sectors, lifecycle phases and corporations (buildingSMART, 2014b). bSDD and IFC rely on the Global Unique Identifiers (GUID) that are randomly created by BIM software and unanimously maintained and used by all actors during the entire lifecycle of the building components. In the recent years the need for an integrated approach to building and product information management has urged linking GUIDs to such product-specific indexing systems as Global Trade Item Number (GTIN)10.

5.1.5 BIM Collaboration Format (#BCF)

BCF is an alternative information transfer format for minor information transactions among actors often during the design phase. By dismissing the need for tedious importing and exporting of bulky BIM models, BCF enhances cross-disciplinary model coordination. BCF is an open XML file format.

The BCF file format facilitates visual tracing of issues and change requests through object-oriented

building models during the design phase and also verification and validation processes. BCF import and export functionalities have now been incorporated in the majority of the common BIM software applications (buildingSMART, 2014c).

5.1.6 Construction Operation Building information exchange(#COBie)

COBie is a widely-used MVD for facility management information handover. COBie was developed in 2007 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. A COBie deliverable consists of the building information

that is crucial to facility management. COBie documentation is initially compiled during the briefing phase through capturing the information sourced from the project program, spatial and functional requirements, room data sheets and other specification documents. During the architectural design phase, tabulated information about rooms, doors, windows, lighting fixtures and HVAC equipment are added to COBie documentation. Later on, the COBie documentation is complemented with information about the installed components such as manufacturer, maintenance instructions and guarantee information (East and Carrasquillo- angual, 2012). A COBie handover could be delivered in different formats e.g. IFC, IFCXML or Excel spreadsheets. The latter is often considered to be the most convenient alternative for FM actors who are often not familiar with complicated BIM file formats. A COBie spreadsheet is composed of a number of predefined tabs namely Space, Zone, Type, Spare, Resourc, Document and Attribute. COBie is based on the U.S. classification system OmniClass(Teicholz, 2013b).

In 2011, COBie was adopted as part of the U.S. National BIM Standard (NBIMS-US). In 2014, it was also included in the British standards (BS 1192-4:2014). During the last decades, buildingSMART alliance11 has undertaken a series of experiments for testing the COBie exchange functions devised in a number of BIM software programs and developed a set of guidelines and tools for implementing COBie. COBie serves well as an index encompassing the most common types of the building information

required in FM (Aldaham et al., 2013). The specific requirements and needs of real-world projects and FM organizations compels, however, developing customized setups for transferring building

information from construction to FM (Lewis, 2013). Another issue with implementing COBie is the differences among national construction classification systems. Such differences are often also

mirrored in the regulatory requirements of different countries. Implementing COBie in a construction project in Sweden where the national BSAB classification system was used, for instance, failed to

retrieve the required information from the project’s BIM handover documentations (Parsanezhad, Tarandi, and Falk, 2016).

The contents of a COBie documentation are sourced from a large number of different actors involved in a construction project sometimes working in parallel. In case spreadsheets are used as the main information transfer format, meticulous routines need to be developed for checking out, checking in and version management of the COBie files themselves. Moreover, much of the information required according to COBie specifications are often provided in formats that could not be easily translated into the COBie structure and require huge amounts of manual work. Examples are product datasheets, Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs), guarantee documents and maintenance manuals. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies could help solving this issue.

5.1.7 #Uniformat, #MasterFormat, #OmniClass and #Uniclass

There is no globally accepted classification system for building components and processes. In the U.S., OmniClass Construction Specifications (OCCS) is the most widely-used classification schema.

OmniClass is developed by the OCCS Development Committee and consists of 15 interrelated tables. It draws from a number of minor domain-specific systems i.e. UniFormat (for building components),

MasterFormat (for work results) and Electronic Product Information Cooperation (EPIC) (OCCS, 2013). In the U.K., Uniclass12 is used instead.

5.1.8 #CoClass

CoClass13 is the latest Swedish construction classification system which is developed by Svensk Byggtjänst14 – a company owned by 32 Swedish construction and FM organizations. CoClass is intended as a modern replacement for such earlier systems as BSAB15 for design and construction and Aff codes16 for FM. The expected advantage of CoClass over earlier systems is its focus on digital

communication of information, embracing all disciplinary actors, the entire built environment and all lifecycle phases, relying on international standards and focus on functionality.

—–Source: The Internet —–

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